Health & Nutrition | Dogs | Cats | October 2, 2015

Vitamin & Mineral Supplementation in Pet Food

A dog playing in the grass

Vitamins and minerals are vital for a broad array of functions in the body and necessary for healthy, thriving, long-living pets. Each individual vitamin and mineral plays a unique function in the body, so it is important that the right balance of these micronutrients is found in all complete and balanced pet foods.

In pet food, vitamin and mineral supplements are commonly referred to as a “premix”, but they are a lot more complex than just a simple blend of nutrients. Many factors must be taken into consideration when designing a vitamin or mineral premix, including the nutrient quality, bioavailability, stability, and physical characteristics.

Nutrient Quality

Whether it is a vitamin, mineral or other nutritional supplement, strict quality control must be in place to ensure consistency and safety. Vitamins and minerals are added in very small amounts to pet foods, and while a little goes a long way, more is not necessarily better and can even cause harm. It is vital that quality is maintained to ensure correct inclusion rates in the final product.


Bioavailability is the degree and rate to which a substance is absorbed by an animal. If a vitamin or mineral cannot be absorbed, then it cannot play its essential role in the body. Nutrients need to be in a form that protects the nutrient from breaking down during cooking and food storage, but is released via digestion for usage by the pet.


Many nutrients react with the environment, specifically oxygen, moisture and heat. Adequate stabilization protects the nutrient from degradation and is critical to ensuring correct nutrient levels in the food.

Physical characteristics

Vitamins and minerals are needed in only very small quantities, so it is critical to ensure even distribution of the premix into the food. Differences in particle size and structure can result in uneven distribution of nutrients when mixing. Imagine mixing together magnetized metal balls with non-magnetized wooden balls – no matter how long the balls are mixed they would not be evenly distributed. Particle size, shape and density play a huge role in creating a homogenous mixture and ensure stability until the food is enjoyed by your pet.

Vitamin and mineral supplementation is used in kibble and canned pet foods to balance the nutrient composition and to ensure the healthiest pet foods possible. These supplements act like a ‘nutrition insurance policy’ to provide essential nutrients in the correct ratios required by dogs and cats. While our goal is to use nutrient-rich ingredients to minimize the need for supplementation, nutrition and food science tells us that optimal nutrition cannot always be achieved by natural food sources alone, making supplementation of pet food necessary.